domingo, abril 19, 2009

Poder e exploração no mundo científico

Brian Martin é Professor de Ciências Sociais na School of Social Sciences, Media and Communication da University of Wollongong. Tem escrito recentemente uma série de artigos muito interessantes sobre plagiarismo, quer em termos académicos quer científicos.

Mas foram os seus textos mais antigos sobre a fraude em ciência e sobre a estrutura do poder científico que me trouxeram aqui. Li em diagonal três artigos, de que deixo citações.

I have argued that links between powerful groups inside and outside the scientific community, and vested interests in disciplinary exclusiveness within scientific organisations, are two major features of the power structure of science which lead to suppression of dissident viewpoints. These two features should not be seen simply as bases for overt attempts at suppression such as blocking publications or appointments. The basis for suppression is institutionalised in science through the very nature of scientific research and scientific organisations.

The vaunted image of many academics who have a high research output, especially those academics with many subordinates, should not be accepted uncritically. How many famous scholars made their greatest breakthrough on the basis of ideas or work of wives, assistants or students? It is impossible to know. But until more information is available, it would be unwise to uncritically accept publication and citation counts as reliable indicators of research capability.
Martin, B., 1986. Academic exploitation. In: Brian Martin, C. M. Ann Baker, Clyde Manwell and Cedric Pugh (editors), Intellectual Suppression: Australian Case Histories, Analysis and Responses (Sydney: Angus & Robertson), pp. 59-62.

In the routine practice of scientific research, there are many types of misrepresentation and bias which could be considered dubious. However, only a few narrowly defined behaviours are singled out and castigated as scientific fraud. A narrow definition of scientific fraud is convenient to the groups in society -- scientific elites, and powerful government and corporate interests -- that have the dominant influence on priorities in science.
Martin, B., 1992. Scientific fraud and the power structure of science. Prometheus, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 83-98.

O meu obrigado à Regina Nabais, pela dica.

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